CytoCulture logo




24b5.jpg (302690 bytes)
24b5.jpg (302690 bytes)
24b5.jpg (302690 bytes)

Laboratory and Technical Services
CytoSol BioSolvent
Cytosol Videos
Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel


Our History of Contract Bioremediation




Research and References


  • Port Technology Article on the Cytosol Process 1997
  • MSDS for Cytosol Biosolvent
  • Berman Barge Fuel Oil Spill Biodegradation, San Juan, PR 1994
  • Bench studies for Petroleum Biodegradation after CytoSol Treatment 1995
  • CytoSol Process Demonstration Summary 1996
  • CytoSol Marsh Plant Oil Spill Clean Up Study 1996
  • Toro Canyon Creek Inland Oil Spill Cleanup Demonstration 1997
  • CytoSol Biosolvent Fate Study in Sea Water 1997
  • CytoSol Cleanup of Oiled Mussels on Pilings, Long Beach 1997
  • New Carissa Oil Spill Cleanup of Ship's Engine Room 1999
  • Initial CytoSol Demonstration at COSS Facility, Corpus Christi 1999
  • Spill Science and Research Article on CytoSol Process 1999
  • Texas A&M University Paper on Oiled Beach Cleanup Simulation 1999


CytoSol Process: Cleaning Oiled Shorelines with a Vegetable Oil Biosolvent

Spill Science & Technology Publication

AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Prevention) 2000 - Texas A&M Research Paper

CytoCulture Research/Field Projects

  1. Biotreatability projects for remediation of recalcitrant compounds (e.g., phenol, MTBE), 1990-1999
  2. Bench-scale fixed‑film bioreactor systems for the biotreatment of contaminated water, 1991-1993
  3. Field-scale/pilot-scale continuous flow suspension culture bioreactors for groundwater, 1989-1997
  4. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale soil bioremediation contracts for oil companies, 1989-2000
  5. Aerobic/anaerobic bacterial enumeration specific for hydrocarbon-contaminated water & soil using MPN and plate count assays as a routine laboratory service for clients, 1990-2000
  6. Aerobic biofilter technology for biodegrading organic vapors in contaminated air 1993-1994
  7. Biodiesel alternative diesel fuel from vegetable oil; USDOE grant; commercialized 1993-2000
  8. Laboratory development, pilot-scale research and field applications of the CytoSol Process based  on a proprietary vegetable oil methyl ester formulation used as a shoreline cleaner for oil spills; supported by USDA research grants leading to EPA listing and CA state licensing, 1994-2000

Bioremediation / Environmental Research Papers

 1.  von Wedel, R.J., Mosquera, J.F., Goldsmith, C.D., Hater, G.R., Wong, A., Fox, T.A., Hunt, W.T., Paules, M.S., Quiros, J.M. and J.W. Wiegand (1988)  Bacterial Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Groundwater: In Situ Augmented Bioreclamation with Enrichment Isolates in California, Water Science Tech. 20 (11/12): 501‑503, Int'l Assoc. Water Pollution Research, U.K.

2.      McGowan, G.T., Volmar, J., and von Wedel, R. (1997) CytoSol Process: Cleaning Oiled Marsh Plants with a Vegetable-Based BioSolvent, 5th International Conference on the Effects of Oil on Wildlife Proceedings, California Department of Fish and Game, Oil Spill Prevention & Response.

3.     von Wedel, R.J. (1998)  The CytoSol Process: Cleaning Oiled Shorelines with a Vegetable Oil Biosolvent, Port Technology International, Vol. 7: 209-214.

4.     von Wedel, R.J. (1999) Technical Handbook for Marine Biodiesel, 2nd Ed., Report for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Golden, CO. (DOE grant)
5.      von Wedel, R.J. (2000) CytoSol – Cleaning Oiled Shorelines with a Vegetable Oil Biosolvent, in Spill Science and Technology Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 5/6,  pp. 357-359, Elsevier Science Ltd., England.

6.     von Wedel, R.J. (2004)  Bioremediation: Waste Equals Food, in Nature’s Operating Instructions The True Biotechnologies, K. Ausubel & J.P. Harginies, Eds., Sierra Club Books, pp. 42-49.

Initial Environmental Abstracts/Conference Presentations  

1.   von Wedel, R.J., Mosquera, J.F., Goldsmith, C.D., Hater, G.R., Wong, A., Fox, T.A., Hunt, W.T.,    Paules, M.S., Quiros, J.M. and Wiegand, J.W. (1988) Bacterial Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Groundwater:  In Situ Augmented Bioreclamation with Enrichment Isolates in California, International Conference on Microbiology of Water & Wastewaters, Feb. 8‑11, Newport Beach

2.     von Wedel, R.J., Goldsmith, C.D. and Hater, G.R. (1988)    Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Annual California Water Pollution Control Association, June 7‑8, Oakland, CA 

3.     von Wedel, R.J., Hater, G.R., Farrell, R. and C.D. Goldsmith (1990)  Excavated Soil Bioremediation for Hydrocarbon Contaminations Using Recirculating Leachbed and Vacuum Heap Bioremediation, Air & Waste Management Assoc./EPA Hazardous Waste Treatment of Contaminated Soil Conf., Cincinnati, OH   Feb. 5‑8, 1990.
4.     von Wedel, R.J., Goldsmith, C.D., Farrell, R., Reeder, J. and Cox, H.W. (1990)  Augmented Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Using Laboratory‑Selected
Bacteria, Haztech International, May 8‑10, 1990; Houston, TX
5.     von Wedel, R.J. (1990)  The Microbiology of Bioremediation: From Laboratory to Field, Session Chairman, International Biotechnology Expo and Conference, San Mateo, CA  Oct. 23‑25.

6.    von Wedel, R.J. (1990)  Augmented Bioremediation of Excavated Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons,  Superfund'90 HMRCI Conference, Biotreatment Session, Wash.,D.C., Nov.26‑28.       

Numerous presentations at conferences in US and Europe on the development and field testing of the CytoSol BioSolvent for cleaning shorelines and marine or aquatic ecosystems contaminated with spilled crude oil.

Technical Reports

    1. von Wedel, R.J. and Aghighi, D. (1987) Technical Evaluation and Bioreactor Design for Conversion of Microbial Airlift Fermentation Technology to Mammalian Cell Culture Applications, Final Report for Maschinenfabrik Andritz AG, Graz, Austria.
    2. von Wedel, R.J., Subramanian, K., and Saxena, V. (1987) Radial Flow Bioreactor for Anchorage-Dependent Cells, Final Report for NIH Small Business Innovation Research project granted to  Sepragen Corporation, San Leandro, CA.
    3. von Wedel, R.J. (1988) Ceramic Perfusion Bioreactor Pilot Study at UCSF Cell Culture Facility, Final Report on Beta-Test Site Results with Murine Monoclonal Hybridoma Cells, San Francisco, CA
    4. von Wedel, R.J. (1988) Serum-Free Medium for Attachment-Dependent Cell Culture Systems, Confidential Consulting Report for Merck Pharmaceuticals, NJ
    5. von Wedel, R.J. (1990) Continuous Flow Bioreactors for Groundwater Bioremediation, Final Report for Regional Water Quality Control Board and PIE Nationwide for Powell St. Plaza, Emeryville, CA
    6. von Wedel, R.J., Hater, G. and Farrell, R. (1990) Bioremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil using a Vacuum Soil Heap Technology, Report for Stall, Gardner & Dunne and City of Oxnard, CA
    7. von Wedel, R.J. and Hater, G. (1990) Soil Bioremediation using Recirculating Leach Bed Technology, Report generated for Sybron Chemicals and Airborne Express, Oakland, CA.
    8. von Wedel, R.J. and Farrell, R.(1991) Soil Bioremediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Using Augmented Land Farming Techniques, Report for Stall, Gardner & Dunne and City of Oxnard, CA
    9. von Wedel, R.J. (1991) Continuous Flow Groundwater Bioremediation, Final Report with Analytical Data, for Baseline Environmental and Yeager & Kirk Lumber site, Santa Rosa, CA
    10. von Wedel, R.J. (1991) Biotreatment of Petroleum-Contaminated Ballast Water Using Suspension Culture Bioreactors, Report for Seaport Terminals and Erickson Environmental, Benecia, CA
    11. von Wedel, R.J. (1992) Soil Bioremediation Treatability Study, Report for Western Digital Corp., Ponce, P.R. and The Pacific Environmental Group, Santa Clara, CA.
    12. von Wedel, R.J. (1992) Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Biotreatment of Phenol-Contaminated Water Using Fixed Film/Suspension Bioreactors, Report for Unocal Refinery, Rodeo, CA and Erickson Environmental, Benicia, CA.

    Additional peer-reviewed publications that address wetlands and oil spills from Dr. J. A. Nyman’s research at Louisiana State University.

    One experiment used soils from two types of fresh marshes (Sagittaria lancifolia and Panicum hemitomon), two types of oil (South Louisiana Crude and diesel), three types of animals (fish, aquatic crustacean, and benthic invertebrate), and four types of response options (no response, fertilizer, the dispersant COREXIT 9500, and the cleaner COREXIT 9580).  This experiment resulted in the following three publications:

    Nyman, J.A., P.L. Klerks, and S. Bhattacharyya.  2007.  Effects of chemical additives on hydrocarbon disappearance and biodegradation in freshwater microcosms.  Environmental Pollution 149:227-238.

    Klerks, P.L., J.A. Nyman, and S. Bhattacharyya.  2004.  Relationship between hydrocarbon measurements and toxicity to a chirinomid, fish larvae, and daphnid for oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory freshwater marsh microcosms.  Environmental Pollution 129:345-353.

    Bhattacharyya, S., P.L. Klerks, and J.A. Nyman.  2003.  Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms.  Environmental Pollution 122:205-215.

    An earlier article documenting improved oil marsh plant following treatment with a chemical cleaner and water rinse

    Pezeshki, S. R. et al 1995. Removing and Saving Oiled Marsh Using A Shoreline Cleaner. Proceedings of the Oil Spill Conference 1995. 203-210.
    Oil Spill Conference 1995 (3.5MB)



Copyright (c) 1986-2009 CytoCulture International, Inc. All rights reserved.

phone: 510-233-6660 | fax: 510-233-3777 | CONTACT US

249 Tewksbury Ave, Point Richmond CA 94801 USA